Indian Society for Sheep and Goat

Production and Utilization




Back crossing of Garole x Malpura half-breds with Malpura for better growth

Having evolved prolific Garole X Malpura (GM) half-breds sheep, there is now vital scope to exploit the prolific GM sheep for relatively better growth by backcrossing with native Malpura. In backcrossing programme GM rams were used as sire and Malpura ewes as dam breed to produce the GM x Malpura (GM (M); 75 % Malpura and 25 % Garole) and reciprocal crosses were also made to produce M (GM). The average body weight of GM (M) at birth, weaning and six month are 3.06 ± 0.076, 13.66 ± 0.44 and 18.92 ± 0.47 kg, respectively and corresponding figures for M (GM) are 2.30 ± 0.086, 11.07 ± 0.38 and 16.28 ± 0.44 kg. There was 53.76, 49.13 and 33.52 percent increase in body weight of GM (M) lambs over GM half-breds at birth, weaning and 6-month of age, respectively. The body weight of GM (M) did not differ significantly from Malpura at birth and weaning stage.

Contributed by Drs A.K. Mishra, A.L. Arora, Sushil Kumar and V.K. Singh, CSWRI, Avikanagar



Workers of Iran’s Embryo Research Centre are expecting birth of cloned sheep in February 2006. It is a first such attempt in the Middle East.

Contributed by Dr S.M.K. Naqvi, CSWRI Avikanagar



The lactation in males is physiologically possible and has been observed both in man and animals. Historically, the incidence of male lactation was first noted by the German explorer Alexander Freiherr von Humboldt prior to 1859 in a 32-year-old man who breastfed his child for five months. All embryos are in fact female until a certain point during development, those respond to the Y chromosome develop male genitalia and become male. Since teats develop before that differentiation occurs, all newborns have teats. In male, teats are often considered vestigial with regard to lactation. Generally the mammary tissue of males is low in volume and cannot be noticed. But, under the appropriate hormonal stimulus the mammary gland of males can also produce milk like females when they become pregnant and give birth. Estrogen and progesterone are dominant in stimulating development of mammary glands and other hormones, which synergize with them in preparing mammary tissue for secretion of milk include prolactin, growth hormone, insulin, thyroid hormone and cortisole. Exogenous administration of sufficient levels of estrogen and progesterone results in hypertrophy and hyperplasia of mammary gland. Reports on male lactation in humans have become more common in recent years due to the use of medications. But, in animals spontaneous male lactation is isolated and rare. Recently, a 3 years old male goat of proven fertility in one of the adopted village of Transfer of Technology Project of Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, producing 100-150 gm milk per day was observed. 
This male goat had both well-developed testes and functional mammary glands of smaller size with enlarged teats. The history of the male indicated that the animal was of high vigour and previously was used for breeding purpose and has sired three kids. The secretion of milk was started when the owner manually massaged the enlarged teats for 3 to 4 days at the time of grazing. The blood samples were collected for estimation of serum concentrations of prolactin, progesterone, testosterone and estradiol hormones. The hormonal profile of lactating male goat shows that high concentration of prolactin and progesterone concomitant with low concentration of testosterone and estradiol hormones, as compared to normal male, seems to be 
responsible for lactation in this male goat.
Contributed by Drs Davendra Kumar, S. Saha, O.H. Chaturvedi, Sushil Kumar, J.S. Mann, J.P. Mittal and V.K. Singh, CSWRI, Avikanagar


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Compiled and edited by:
Dr. Davendra Kumar
S. C. Sharma

Layout Setting:
M.L. Jangid

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Avikanagar304501 Via:Jaipur (Raj.)